Mummery – i.e. all practices to conceal one’s identity, usually by (partially) covering the face – has a long tradition as a repertoire of contention. In this chapter I discuss how and why this practice became part of social movements’ action repertoire and what this practice tells us about protests and protesters. Starting with a description of its various forms, and proceeding with a discussion of its meanings, its historical roots, and the authorities’ reactions to this practice.
- Haunss, Sebastian (2016): Mummery, in: Kathrin Fahlenbrach, Martin Klimke, and Joachim Scharloth (eds.), Protest Cultures: A Companion, New York: Berghahn Books, pp. 414–419.